Social Enterprise


I was Executive Director of SE Hub Ltd from 1 July 2011 to 30 September 2014. SE Hub was set up by me for Tote Board ( as a social enterprise to invest in other social enterprises in Singapore. The aim was to fund and mentor their growth and eventual achievement of financial sustainability. Several investments were made. This site is to share what I learnt during this short period.


(Note: Some of the links given in the articles may have changed since publication.)

Emergence of the Fourth Sector

    The public, commercial and social sectors are the three traditional economic sectors, a different way of classification from the three-sector economic hypothesis, which divides economies into ...
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Measurement of Social Returns

    Measurement of social impact and social returns is not straightforward. The definition of “social impact” is not clear-cut; it depends on context and it is difficult to prove actual extent or depth of the impact.
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Output and Outcome

    Many social entrepreneurs struggle with the meanings and differences between output and outcome. This article is to help explain the definitions of these terms. We start by looking at the elements of a social program.
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Outcome and Impact

    The differences between Output and Outcome can be clearly understood. But the differences between Outcome and Impact are not so clear. Both refer to the consequences of programs. In fact, for some these terms ...
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The Dilemmas of Social Entrepreneurs and Investors

    A common dilemma of both social entrepreneurs and investors, and others in the social sector as well, is the concept of “social enterprise”.
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The State of Altruism in Asia

    Much has been said about Asia's growth story and the region's rising wealth. But the development needs in Asia remain numerous - presenting huge opportunities for philanthropy to facilitate ...
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A Program Planning & Funding Guide

Outcome-Based Social Programs: A Program Planning & Funding Guide is a book commissioned by Tote Board. It was launched on 5 April 2013, with the following message from Tote Board:

“Tote Board’s journey towards understanding and embracing Outcome Funding began in 2009, when it engaged an international consultant for this purpose. Over the years, the Board has accumulated precious experience through running grant calls, evaluating applications, holding extensive dialogues with non-profit organisations (“NPOs”) and conducting research.

We see a need for a guide book customised for the local context, as we realised that when more NPOs practise Outcome Funding, there can be considerable benefits for them and their beneficiaries. It is for this reason that the Board has published a guide book to generate more awareness of the Outcome Funding methodology and principles, among NPOs.

This guide book offers practical advice on how organisations may plan outcome-based programs, the evaluation methodology, and also the limitations and issues to watch out for when embarking on outcome-based social programs. The Board sincerely hopes that this guide book will help NPOs embark on a successful journey of adding value to their programs, through the Outcome Funding framework.”

Click the “Read / Download Outcome Guide” link to read or download the book in PDF format.